Sunday, May 31, 2020
Ernest Hemingway was worldly known for his writing style that was composed of brief, straightforward sentences. HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s unique style eventually led to him being rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1954. Not only was he known for his style of writing, but the main ideas used in his stories were from experiences he faced in his life himself and he just dramatitized them himself. Some more novels that Hemingway wrote include: The Sun Always Rises, A Farewell to Arms, To Have and Have Not, and For Whom the Bell Tolls. HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions and things he underwent in his early life ultimately led to events that transpired in his later life. ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s father Clarence Edmonds Hemingway or Ed Hemingway started practice towards being a doctor and when he served his internship re-met his later wife, Grace Hall. Ed Hemingway was helping tend to GraceÃ¢â¬â¢s mother because she had cancer. Ed Hemingway and Grace Hall had previously seen each other when they went to the same high school, Oak Park High School. Their letters they sent to each other over a span of six years later led to their marriage in the year of 1896. Grace enjoyed playing music and later found herself teaching music to people. Ed Hemingway and Grace Hemingway had 6 children together, including Ernest. Ernest had an older sister, Marcelline, which was born in January 1898. Ernest also had three younger sisters and younger brother: Ursula, Madelaine or Sunny, Carol and Leicester. Ursula was born in 1902, Madelaine in 1904, Carol in 1911 and Leicester in 1915 (Dearborn 18). ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s mom, Grace Hemingway recorded things about Ernest as a child in his baby book, she would record things that Ernest did as a child that were special and embarrassing. There were photos of Ernest as a baby with his sister and it looked like they were twins and both girls. In that century, it was common for boys to wear girls clothes, but even after, there began to be differences in the clothes between boys and girls. ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s mom still dressed Ernest in girlÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes. As a child Ernest was very close with his oldest sister Marcelline. Grace always treated his two older kids as twins, because she had always wanted twins. Not only did Grace dress up Ernest like Marcelline, but she wanted them to be in the same grade so she held Marcelline back a year. Ernest and MarcellineÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship were really close as they were children and continued to grow as they became older but their relationship soon became toxic as they reached adulthood. There were cer tain traits that Ernest pointed out in MarcellineÃ¢â¬â¢s personality that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like because they were the same bad traits his mother had (Dearborn 22). ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s parents bought a house on Walloon Lake in northern Michigan the year before he was born. A third of ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s summers were spent at this Michigan lake house. This summer home had a big impact on Ernest as he was growing up and later on in his writings. Michigan is where Ernest experienced the fun in nature and the wilderness in the world. All the Hemingway kids were taught how to shoot a gun and the safety about them by Ed Hemingway, he taught them how to shoot an animal and catch a fish. While at the house on the lake the kids would always fish and hunt. Even though Ernest went to the house in his earlier years there were still consistent appearances of the Michigan house in many of his later works, but one major work that it appeared in was The Nick Adam Stories. The Nick Adam Stories were a group of short stories describing major events in ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s life, from childhood to adulthood. Not only did the summers going to Walloon Lake help develop some of hi s writings, but I believe that it caused Ernest to have a liking for traveling to places and seeing the world (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Ã¢â¬Å"When Hemingway Was a Young Fisherman in MichiganÃ¢â¬ ). As Ernest entered in as a freshman into Oak Park and River Forest High School, he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t serious about English and actually had plans to become a doctor. After taking English classes and courses in writing, his plan began to change and he became serious about English. Marcelline and Ernest enjoyed reading magazines that came to their house and competed to see who could finish reading things first, like King James Bible. The later years in high school was when Ernest really began to grow an inspiration and love for writing. Two teachers influenced him extremely, Margaret Dixon and Fannie Biggs. Both teachers took a were interested in helping Ernest, but each helped him differently. Ernest was encouraged and motivated by Miss Dixon when he was beginning to write. Miss Biggs had an club that both Ernest and Marcelline were heavily involved in. Throughout the club, students would send in work and critique each others work with help from Miss Biggs. Miss Biggs was a big influence f or Ernest to focus on the genre of short stories, but Miss Biggs was more influential to Ernest on his path to journalism. Miss BiggsÃ¢â¬â¢s journalism class was known for being ran like an actual newspaper office. Both Ernest and Marcelline were picked to be rotating editors for the newspaper. The editors were specifically chosen by Miss BiggsÃ¢â¬â¢s to write about different things in the newspaper. Ernest found that sports writing was the easiest for him especially since he played on a couple of sports teams in high school. ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s passion for writing definitely started from high school and flowered into something amazing as can be seen in his writings. His teachers gave him the motivation and opportunity to further his English and writing skills in high school(Dearborn 37-38). In ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s senior year of high school, he started thinking about college. ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s father wanted him to follow his sister, Marcelline, and attend Oberlin, but Ernest liked Cornell better. Ernest told many people that he was going to the University of Illinois, but ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in college disappeared and was more interested at working for the newspaper, The Kansas City Star. ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle Tyler helped Ernest get the apprenticeship at The Kansas City Star because he knew a writer at the newspaper. The newspaper gave Ernest a full-time job in the fall. Ernest was new to writing newspapers, but eventually, he became a very talented newspaper writer. Ernest had the job of interviewing people in a certain area of Kansas, through this he met many people and became more associated with the city. He was taught the rules of the newspaper and the rules happened to become the reason he was such a unique writer. Certainly, obtaining these skills early on in his life helped him because the rules he was taught at the newspaper was the style he was later known for (Dearborn 45-49). During ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s time at the newspaper he wanted to serve in the Great War. Ever since his senior year in high school, Ernest saw the societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ shift to militarism. This patriotism drew Ernest towards the military life, and caused him to sign with the 7th Missouri Infantry of the National Guard. ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s family was known for having bad eyesight and this caused for the U.S. Unit to not accept him. Luckily, for Ernest the American Red Cross was giving opportunities through ambulance driving in France. The Red Cross was actively recruiting because of the major defeats the Italians faced due to the Austrians. Ernest signed up and told The Kansas City Star he was leaving in April. Ernest made his way from Mestre to Fossalta, which would be the Red Cross base camp. Ernest would go from trench to trench handing out supplies to Italian soldiers. One day as Ernest walking out of the trench and the Austrians started shooting their mortars at them. The explosion caused sold iers to lie dead on the ground or cause major wounds to them. Ernest who had been badly wounded from the shrapnel, caused by the explosion, lifted a badly wounded soldier and walked to the Red Cross dugout. On ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s last steps to the dugout his leg was shot by a machine gun, causing him to be unconscious in the trench. Red Cross drivers took Ernest to Fornaci where they would clean his wounds. For ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s act of heroism, he was awarded The Silver Medal of Military Valor. Many different versions of ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s story would surface. While in the Red Cross hospital in Milan, Ernest was trying to come up with a good fictional novel about his war wounds. Eventually, Ernest wrote, A Farewell to Arms, in 1929. A Farewell to Arms was a love story about a hero, Frederic Henry, and a nurse, Catherine Barkley, that while recovering from his wounds they fell in love. Just like in ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Ernest ends up having a liking for a nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky whil e he was recovering from his war wounds. They spent time together, digging shrapnel out of his leg, sightseeing, and going to races at San Siro. While in the hospital, many have said that ErnestÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences had caused his personality to change from a fresh, boyish character to being self-centered. He thought of himself so highly by wearing his uniform with all of his medals and wounds stripes. Not only did this event that Ernest experience tremendously help his fan base later in his life, but it also changed Ernest as a person (Dearborn 59-68). Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s early life seeded the origins for his great writing skills and success. From his experience in the wilderness that later led to his love for traveling, his teachers that sparked his inspiration for writing in high school, to his career in journalism that made him known for his unique writing style, to his near death experience that led him to writing an amazing novel. These are only a few examples in HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s early life that helped his success in his later life. Without these important events Hemingway experienced in his early life, I believe that he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be nearly as successful and well-known today.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Viking raids were a characteristic of the Scandinavian early medieval pirates called the Norse or Vikings, particularly during the first 50 years of the Viking Age (~793-850). Raiding as a lifestyle was first established in Scandinavia by the 6th century, as illustrated in the epic English tale of Beowulf; contemporary sources referred to the raiders as ferox gens (the fierce people). The predominant theory for the reasons for the raiding is that there was a population boom, and trading networks into Europe became established, the Vikings became aware of the wealth of their neighbors, both in silver and in land. Recent scholars are not so certain. But there is no doubt that Viking raiding ultimately led to political conquest, settlement on a substantial scale across northern Europe, and extensive Scandinavian cultural and linguistic influences in eastern and northern England. After the raiding all but ended, the period was followed by revolutionary changes in land ownership, society, and economy, including the growth of towns and industry. Timeline of the Raids The earliest Viking raids outside of Scandinavia were small in scope, isolated attacks on coastal targets. Led by the Norwegians, the raids were on monasteries in Northumberland on the northeast coast of England, at Lindisfarne (793), Jarrow (794) and Wearmouth (794), and at Iona in the Orkney Islands of Scotland (795). These raids were chiefly in search of portable wealth--metalwork, glass, religious texts for ransoming, and slaves--and if the Norwegians couldnt find enough in the monastery stores, they ransomed the monks themselves back to the church. By AD 850, Vikings were over-wintering in England, Ireland, and western Europe, and by the 860s, they had established strongholds and taken land, violently expanding their landholdings. By 865, the Viking raids were larger and more substantial. The fleet of hundreds of Scandinavian warships which became known as the Great Army (micel here in Anglo-Saxon) arrived in England in 865 and stayed for several years, running raids on cities on both sides of the English Channel. Eventually, the Great Army became settlers, creating the region of England known as the Danelaw. The Great Armys last battle, led by Guthrum, was in 878 when they were defeated by West Saxons under Alfred the Great at Edington in Wiltshire. That peace was negotiated with the Christian baptism of Guthrum and 30 of his warriors. After that, the Norse went to East Anglia and settled there, where Guthrum became a king in a western European style, under his baptismal name of Ãâ thelstan (not to be confused with Athelstan). Viking Raids to Imperialism One reason the Viking raids succeeded so well was the comparative disarray of their neighbors. England was divided into five kingdoms when the Danish Great Army attacked; political chaos ruled the day in Ireland; the rulers of Constantinople were off fighting the Arabs, and Charlemagnes Holy Roman Empire was crumbling. One-half of England fell to the Vikings by 870. Although the Vikings living in England had become just another part of the English populace, in 980 a new wave of attacks from Norway and Denmark occurred. In 1016, King Cnut controlled all of England, Denmark, and Norway. In 1066, Harald Hardrada died at Stamford Bridge, essentially ending the Norse control of any lands outside of Scandinavia. Evidence for the impact of the Vikings is found in place names, artifacts and other material culture, and in the DNA of todays residents all across northern Europe. Why Did the Vikings Raid? What drove the Norse to raid has been long debated. As summarized by British archaeologist Steven P. Ashby, the most commonly believed reason is population pressure--that the Scandinavian lands were over-populated and the excess population left to find new worlds. Other reasons discussed in the academic literature include the development of maritime technology, climatic changes, religious fatalism, political centralism, and silver fever. Silver fever is what scholars have termed a reaction to the variable availability of Arabic silver flooding into Scandinavian markets. Raiding in the early medieval period was widespread, not restricted to Scandinavians. The raiding emerged in the context of a flourishing economic system in the North Sea region, based primarily on trade with Arab civilizations: Arab caliphates were producing demand for slaves and fur and trading them for silver. Ashby suggests that may have led to Scandinavias appreciation of the increasing quantities of silver entering the Baltic and the North Sea regions. Social Factors for Raiding One strong impulse for building portable wealth was its use as bridewealth. Scandinavian society was experiencing a demographic change in which young men made up a disproportionately large part of the population. Some scholars have suggested that arose from female infanticide, and some evidence for that can be found in historic documents such as GunnlaugÃ¢â¬â¢s Saga and in a reference to the sacrifice of female children at 10th c Hedeby described by the Arab writer Al-Turtushi. Theres also a disproportionally small number of adult female graves in Late Iron Age Scandinavia and the occasional recovery of scattered childrens bones in Viking and medieval sites. Ashby suggests that the excitement and adventure of travel for the young Scandinavians shouldnt be dismissed. He suggests this impetus could be called status fever: that people who visit exotic locations often garner some sense of the extraordinary for themselves. Viking raiding was, therefore, a quest for knowledge, fame, and prestige, to escape the constraints of the home society, and, along the way, acquire valuable goods. Viking political elites and shamans had privileged access to the Arabian and other travelers who visited Scandinavia, and their sons then wanted to go out and do likewise. Viking Silver Hoards Archaeological evidence of the success of many of these raidsÃ¢â¬âand the range of their booty captureÃ¢â¬âis found in the collections of Viking silver hoards, found buried all over northern Europe, and containing riches from all of the conquest lands. A Viking silver hoard (or Viking hoard) is a stash of (mostly) silver coins, ingots, personal ornaments and fragmented metal left in buried deposits throughout the Viking empire between about AD 800 and 1150. Hundreds of hoards have been found cached in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and northern Europe. They are still found today; one of the most recent was the Galloway hoard discovered in Scotland in 2014. Amassed from plunder, trade, and tributes, as well as bride-wealth and fines, the hoards represent a glimpse into the wide-ranging grasp of the Viking economy, and into the minting processes and silver metallurgy of the world at the time. About AD 995 when the Viking King Olaf I converted to Christianity, the hoards also begin to show evidence of the Viking spread of Christianity throughout the region, and their association with trade and urbanization of the European continent. Sources Ashby SP. 2015. What really caused the Viking Age? The social content of raiding and exploration. Archaeological Dialogues 22(1):89-106.Barrett JH. 2008. What caused the Viking Age? Antiquity 82:671-685.Cross KC. 2014. .Enemy and Ancestor: Viking Identities and Ethnic Boundaries in England and Normandy, c.950-c.1015 London: University College London.Graham-Campbell J, and Sheehan J. 2009. Viking Age gold and silver from Irish crannogs and other watery places. The Journal of Irish Archaeology 18:77-93.Hadley DM, Richards JD, Brown H, Craig-Atkins E, Mahoney Swales D, Perry G, Stein S, and Woods A. 2016. The Winter Camp of the Viking Great Army, AD 872Ã¢â¬â3, Torksey, Lincolnshire. Antiquaries Journal 96:23-37.Kosiba SB, Tykot RH, and Carlsson D. 2007. Stable isotopes as indicators of change in the food procurement and food preference of Viking Age and Early Christian populations on Gotland (Sweden). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26:394Ã¢â¬â411.Peschel EM, Carlsson D, Be thard J, and Beaudry MC. 2017. Who resided in RidanÃ ¤s?: A study of mobility on a Viking Age trading port in Gotland, Sweden. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13:175-184.Raffield B, Price N, and Collard M. 2017. Male-biased operational sex ratios and the Viking phenomenon: an evolutionary anthropological perspective on Late Iron Age Scandinavian raiding. Evolution and Human Behavior 38(3):315-324.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Life presents many decisions to be made. Some choices can be decided by individuals and others are left to fate. Robert Frost is widely known for his examinations of philosophical topics, such as fate, that have generated influential writings and relatable themes. His ability to capture nature only furthers the beauty of these philosophies. Ã¢â¬Å"The Road Not TakenÃ¢â¬ depicts FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on decision making with the use of symbolism of two paths through poetry. The effects of the two paths and the difficulty of the decision are furthered through the tone used to describe the differences in paths. Frost creates a somber tone, with a hint of hopefulness, to allude to the decision that is to come and the role that fate plays in the poem. The use ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦With the beauty of fall and the two roads, the atmosphere remains somber within the path of the forest. However, the tone becomes one of regret quickly. The narrator knows that the decision will have long term effects on the life that develops from the choice. Ã¢â¬Å"And sorry I could not travel both/ And be one traveler, long I stood,Ã¢â¬ reveals this sense of tension between making a conscious decision or leaving it up to fate (Frost 241). Standing present at the fork for a long time, allows for the tension to build between the narrator and nature, only furthering the somber tone. With the emphasis on contemplation, the reader learns that the poem is not simply about the paths. The paths are symbols for decision making; and the two components of that being individual choice or fate. With the narrator needing to make a decision, the tone changes to one of tension, which is expressed in the coming line. The narrator experiences this pressure with nature, but also with decision making. Ã¢â¬Å"And looked down one as far as I could/ To where it bent in the undergrowth,Ã¢â¬ reveals that only to one bend, on one path, can the narrator see what lies ahead (Frost 242). With the failure to see further down the path, the narrator places strain on themselves to make a decision that will have the best outcome. The two paths create a symbol for this anxiety in which individuals have on making decisions. The inability to predict the future forces an individual to place trust in
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
For an individual, it must be treated as a continuous process that should not end when graduation rites in each particular level of schooling are being held. True education is life, it must always be a part of our daily living, whether through formal or informal means. Educational systems in general, and educational curriculum in particular, also need not to be static. The curriculum should respond to the demands of a fast-changing society. To some extent, it should also be global or internationally-aligned. These are the reasons why foreign and local educational educators in the past and until now have been introducing educational reforms and innovations. They have been searching means to address the problems being met in the implementation of a certain curriculums and to ensure the total development of every learner. I. The Past Movements for Social Change in the School System Social change affects education. Centuries ago, pioneers of education have sought to introduce renewal in education. We will write a custom essay sample on Past Movements in Education and Analysis of Curricuar Reforms or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Their ideas were far ahead than the actual renewal that took place later on. Among them were Commenius, Condorcet, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Dewey, Drecoly, Montessori and Freinet. 1. Johann Amos Commenius -Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Modern EducationÃ¢â¬ Most permanent educational influences: a. practical educational work Comenius was first a teacher and an organizer of schools, not only among his own people, but later in Sweden, and to a slight extent in Holland. In his Didactica Magna (Great Didactic), he outlined a system of schools that is the exact counterpart of the existing American system of kindergarten, elementary school, secondary school, college, and university. Didactica Magna is an educational treatise which aimed to seek and find a method of instruction by which teachers may teach less but learners may learn more, by which the school may be the scene of less noise, aversion, and useless labor, but of more leisure, enjoyment and solid progress; and through which the Christian community may have less darkness, perplexity (confusion) and dissension (disagreement), but on the other hand, more light, orderliness, peace and rest. b. formulating the general theory of education In this respect he is the forerunner of Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, etc. and is the first to formulate that idea of Ã¢â¬Å"education according to natureÃ¢â¬ so influential during the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth century. c. the subject matter and method of education -exerted through a series of textbooks of an entirely new nature His published works: Janua Linguarum Reserata (The Gateway of Language Unlocked) contained his convictio n (certainty) that one of the prerequisites for effective educational reform was a fundamental change in language of instruction. Orbis Pictus (The World of Sensible Things Pictured) contributed to the development of the principles of audio-visual interaction. It was the first successful applications of illustrations to the work of teaching, but not the first illustrated book for children. Schola Ludus (School as Play) a detailed exposition of the doctrine that all learning should be made interesting, dramatic and stimulating. These texts were all based on the same fundamental ideas: (1) learning foreign languages through the vernacular; (2) obtaining ideas through objects rather than words; (3) starting with objects most familiar to the child to introduce him to both the new language and the more remote world of objects: (4) giving the child a comprehensive knowledge of his environment, physical and social, as well as instruction in religious, moral, and classical subjects; (5) making this acquisition of a compendium of knowledge a pleasure rather than a task; and (6) making instruction universal. He also developed the pansophic scheme, the view that education should take the whole of human knowledge as its universe. For him, truth was indivisible and was to be seen as a whole. Thus by relating each subject to every other subject and to general principles, pansophia was to make the learner capable of wisdom. 2. Marquis De Condorcet Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat took his title Marquis de Condorcet from the town of Condorcet in Dauphine. He advocated that the aims of education were: o cultivate in each generation the physical, intellectual and moral facilities and, thereby contribute to the general and gradual improvement of the human race. He envisioned a national system of public education designed to develop the natural talents of all, making real equality possible. His proposals of the five levels of public instructions areas follows: 1. Elementary- for the teaching of the Ã¢â¬ËelementsÃ¢â¬â¢ of all knowledge (reading, writing, arithmetic, morals, economics and n atural science)and would be compulsory for all four years 2. Secondary school- of three yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ duration, teaching grammar, history and geography, one foreign language, the mechanical arts, law and mathematics. The teaching at this and the first level would be non-specialized. 3. Institutes- responsible for Ã¢â¬Ësubstituting reasoning for eloquence and books for speech, and for bringing philosophy and the physical science methodology into the moral sciencesÃ¢â¬â¢. The teaching at this level would be more specialized. Pupils would choose their own course of study (at least two courses a year) from among four classes: mathematics and physics, moral and political sciences, science as applied to the arts, and literature and fine arts. 4. Lycee the equivalent of universities, with the same classes as the institutes and Ã¢â¬Ëwhere all the sciences are taught in full. It is there that scholars-teachers receive their further trainingÃ¢â¬â¢. Education at this and the first three levels was to be entirely free of charge. 5. National Society of Science and the Arts a research institute responsible for supervising the formal education system as a whole and for appointing teachers. Its role would be one of scientific and pedagogical research. 3. Jean Jacques Rousseau According to the history of education, he was the first great writer to insist that education should be based upon the nature of the child. RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s Emile is a kind of half treatise, half novel that tells the life story of a fictional man named Emile. In the history of education, the significant contributions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi are: 1) his educational philosophy and instructional method that encouraged harmonious intellectual, moral, and physical development Pestalozzis most systematic work, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children (1801) was a critique of conventional schooling and a prescription for educational reform. Rejecting corporal punishment, rote memorization, and bookishness, Pestalozzi envisioned schools that were homelike institutions where teachers actively engaged students in learning by sensory experiences. Such schools were to educate individuals who were well rounded intellectually, morally, and physically. Through engagement in activities, students were to learn useful vocations that complemented their other studies. 2) his methodology of empirical sensory learning, especially through object lessons Pestalozzi designed object lessons in which children, guided by teachers, examined the form (shape), number (quantity and weight) of objects, and named them after direct experience with them. 3) his use of activities, excursions, and nature studies that anticipated Progressive education. He also emphasized the importance of the nature of the child and propounded (advocated) that in the educational process, the child must be thought in relation to the subject matter. He sought to understand the nature of the child and to build his teaching around the natural, progressive and harmonious development of all the powers and capacities. He is an advocate of each manÃ¢â¬â¢s right to education and of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to implement that right and pave the way to universal national education. His motto Learning by head, hand and heart is still a key principle in successful 21st-century schools. 5. Friedrich Froebel The German educator, Friedrich Froebel, was one of these pioneers of early childhood educational reform. FroebelÃ¢â¬â¢s educational principles: a) free self-activity As an educator, Froebel believed that stimulating voluntary self-activity in the young child was the necessary form of pre-school education (Watson, 1997a). Self-activity is defined as the development of qualities and skills that make it possible to take an invisible idea and make it a reality; self-activity involves formulating a purpose, planning out that purpose, and then acting on that plan until the purpose is realized (Corbett, 1998a). Corbett suggests that one of Froebels significant contributions to early childhood education was his theory of introducing play as a means of engaging children in self-activity for the purpose of externalizing their inner natures. ) creativity Froebel designed a series of instructional materials that he called gifts and occupations, which demonstrated certain relationships and led children in comparison, testing, and creative exploration activities (Watson, 1997b). A gift was an object provided for a child to play withsuch as a sphere, cube, or cylinderwhich helped the child to understand and internalize the concepts of shape, dimension, size, and their relationships (Staff, 1998). The occupations were items such as aints and clay which the children could use to make what they wished; through the occupations, children externalized the concepts existing within their creative minds (Staff, 1998). Therefore, through the childs own self-activity and creative imaginative play, the child would begin to understand both the inner and outer properties of things as he moves through the developmental stages of the educational process. c) social participation A third component of Froebels educational plan involved working closely with the family unit. Froebel believed that parents provided the first as well as the most consistent educational influence in a childs life. Since a childs first educational experiences occur within the family unit, he is already familiar with the home d) motor expression Motor expression, which refers to learning by doing as opposed to following rote instructions, is a very important aspect of Froebels educational principles. Froebel did not believe that the child should be placed into societys mold, but should be allowed to shape his own mold and grow at his own pace through the developmental stages of the educational process. 6. John Dewey He contributed the educational philosophy which maintains that education is life, education is growth and education is a continuous reconstruction of human experiences from the beginning to the end of life. He was the spokes person of progressive education which states that aims have significance only for persons, not for processes such as education, and arise only in response to problematic situations in ongoing activities. Aims are to be viewed as anticipated outcomes of transactions, as intrinsic aspects of the process of problem-solving, and as a motivating force behind the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to problem-solving situations. The Progressive Education Association, inspired by DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, later codified his doctrines as follows: a. The conduct of the pupils shall be governed by themselves, according to the social needs of the community. b. Interest shall be the motive for all work. c. Teachers will inspire a desire for knowledge, and will serve as guides in the investigations undertaken, rather than as task-masters. d. Scientific study of each pupilÃ¢â¬â¢s development, physical, mental, social and spiritual, is absolutely essential to the intelligent direction of his development. . Greater attention is paid to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical needs, with greater use of the out-of-doors. f. Cooperation between school and home will fill all needs of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development such as music, dancing, play and other extra-curricular activities. g. All progressive schools will look upon their work as of the laboratory type, giving freely to the sum of educational knowledge the results of their experi ments in child culture. He believed that education has two sides: the psychological and the social on the same plane. Education must start from the psychological nature of the child as the basis for directing his energies into totally useful channels. Schools must be set up to include bond the individual and social goals. The needs of a new society are to be taken into consideration in modifying methods and curriculum. 7. Ovide Decroly He influenced instruction in the kindergarten, the aim of which was to guide the childÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for activity and to give him a sense of discipline and norms for his social behavior (same with Dewey) 8. Maria Montessori Maria Montessori left a long lasting mark on education around the world.
Saturday, April 18, 2020
Qualitative Approach Used While Assessing Academic Progress after Introduction of Technological Changes and Professional Development Programs
Table of Contents Introduction Purpose Statement Research Hypotheses Background Significance of the Research Methodology Reference List Introduction The assessment of effectiveness of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance is significant for further improvements and measures that may be taken to change the situation at school or any other educational institution. In this respect, it is necessary to evaluate the current situation and conduct research to evaluate the situation after implementing changes. Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Qualitative Approach Used While Assessing Academic Progress after Introduction of Technological Changes and Professional Development Programs specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The evaluation should concern the methods of teaching as claimed by students (measure if students are satisfied with teaching methods and practical implementation of curriculum using a rubric); instance s of technology use in classes, student and faculty attitudes, or changes in teaching practices should be measured as well. Analysis of changes in the situation can show how effective the changes can be and what areas of academic activity should receive more attention even after implementation of changes into academic curriculum. Purpose Statement The purpose of the research consists in the evaluation of situation at an educational institution after the introduction of changes. The research is sure to demonstrate the most vulnerable areas of academic curriculum and technological advancement. The results of the research will become the evidence for implementation of further practices into academic curriculum and professional development sessions. The purpose of the current research consists in assessment of effectiveness of changes and consideration of their further implementation. Research Hypotheses The introduction of changes can affect all parties concerned and it is important t o know how effective the changed are in terms of academic progress and satisfaction of students from practical implementation of academic curriculum. If the changes are really effective, researchers should share their experience and claim to make changes at a national level regarding all educational institutions of different academic levels. If the changes prove to be ineffective, it is necessary to question a necessity of further application of those practices in the educational institution under consideration and prevent other institutions that face similar problems from introducing those changes. In this respect, it is necessary to evaluate academic progress and effectiveness of teaching methods used by tutors after completion of professional development sessions and skills gained during those sessions to make students interested in class activities and get a feedback and constructive criticism on the strategies used after the reform.Advertising Looking for assessment on e ducation? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Background It is necessary to note that every greater change involves minor changes that are sure to affect all areas relevant to the main field that should undergo changes. In this respect, it would be really interesting to take into account GuskeyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1986 as cited in Walpole McKenna, 2004, p.188) research and implementation of heuristic approach. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦staff development sessions [should] be targeted directly to changing teacher practice, that data collected to track the effects of that changed practice on student outcomes, and that these changes in student outcomes influence changes in teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs and attitudesÃ¢â¬ (Walpole McKenna, 2004, p.188). As the knowledge gained during professional development sessions can be applicable to real life situation in terms of education, teachers are expected to implement theory into practice during their classes, hence improving studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the material and raising their interest and encouraging participation and constructive feedbacks on the curriculum and activities in class. Significance of the Research The research is significant due to its original idea to investigate the academic progress of students through their personal assessment of the changed curriculum, technological approach, and design. Analyzing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ opinion, it is easier to explore the situation from inside, thus, learning the effectiveness of changes implemented after professional development sessions and other alterations introduced into academic process. The importance of the research concerns the analysis of data and assessment of effectiveness of methods used to improve the academic curriculum, methods of teaching, and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement into activities. Methodology The qualitative approach should be used for more effective collection and analysis of data. It is necessary to compl ete a survey so that all aspects were covered. As the research should be designed including two parts such as collecting information and evaluation of gathered data, the surveys and criteria should be designed correspondingly. Thus, the collecting part should be designed in the form of a survey so that every student, parent and teacher could assess the situation concerning academic curriculum, technological implementation of innovations, and teaching methods. Lodico, Spaulding, Voegtle (2010) report about the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ participation in evaluation of the situation in academic curriculum ad progress of students (p.36); thereby, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ assessment of the situation is of crucial importance as it enables researchers to analyze the situation in general as viewed by all parties concerned. Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Qualitative Approach Used While Assessing Academic Progress after Introduction of Technological Changes and Professional Devel opment Programs specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it is necessary to complete questionnaires for parents and distribute those among parents during parents-teachers conferences. This will enable researchers to get a feedback from parents as well as from students. Surveys can be considered the most appropriate method for applying qualitative approach to the institution (Creswell, 2003, p.5). The assessment criteria should be presented in the form of a rubric to define the practices applied to the academic curriculum as those that appeared to be effective, partially effective, or ineffective. Reference List Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. Lodico, M., Spaulding, D. T., Voegtle, K. H. (2010). Methods in educational research: from theory to practice. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley Sons. Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. (2004). The literac y coachÃ¢â¬â¢s handbook: A guide to research-based practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. This assessment on Qualitative Approach Used While Assessing Academic Progress after Introduction of Technological Changes and Professional Development Programs was written and submitted by user Moderate Kid to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
French Revolution2 essays The statement citing the essential cause of the French Revolution as the "collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending it's privileges" has great pertinence in summarizing the conflict of 1789. The causes of the French Revolution, being provoked by this collision of powers, was the Financial debt of the government and the long-standing political differences in the government. Over the course of twenty-five years after the Seven Years' War, the government of Francethe Bourgeoisie royalty, could not manage it's finances on a sound basis. This was worsened when France aided the American Revolution against Great Britain. The Government had reached great financial debt. The problem lied and continued because of the government's inability to tap the wealth of the French nation by taxation. There was a great paradox in France being a rich nation with a government in poverty. The deteriorating finances of the government is what triggered the prolonged differences between the Bourgeoisie and the aristocracy. The political differences between the monarchy and the nobles came about after the Seven Years' war also. The increasing debt of the government escalated the hope for the monarchy to resume a "absolute power" status as it did with Louis XIV. However this could not be accomplished because of the doubt that the public had towards the present kings Louis XV and Louis XVI, and the public could not be swayed to help. The only result of the attempts for absolutism by the monarchy were a series of new and increase taxes on the nobles. The aristocracy immediately reacted to these taxes as declaring them unfair and would not accept them. Louis XV began with a series of Financial advisors chancellors which all had the intention of saving the monarchy from financial ruin. They made many attempts at ...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Does technology reflect progress - Essay Example At this time technology did not carry personal vested interests. With the industrial revolution, came a change. Technology introduced power and a common man got so indulged into it that he began to view it as an end in itself rather than a means leading to some social goal. This was the point in time which actually raised the question posed in the beginning of this essay. There is no doubt that technology makes things easier, quicker and saves human labor. But is it progress? It gives a manpower and helps in achieving many material goals and mental satisfaction. But it does so, only for a certain class in the society. What of the poor laborers who become jobless due to technology? What of the fishermen who lose their catch because of technology? I think progress of a society has nothing to do with the fulfillment of vested interests of one class of the society. Progress on the societal level has to be collective to be called progress. Technology has definitely helped in improving the living standard of man all around the globe. I am not against technology. It is not possible to imagine even the earliest mankind without technology.